We began work on designing substantial modifications to existing protocols, verifying pre-standard protocols, or creating entirely new standards for new areas. In these areas the fundamental protocols are often unstandardized and controlled by a few large companies (such as the case of identity-based authorization in terms of Google and Facebook’s use of OAuth) and new protocols (such as the incompatible space of protocols around secure messaging given by applications such as WhatsApp, Signal, Telegram, and Viber). In some cases, these protocols do not support basic features needed for standardization, such as decentralization and federation. Therefore, in the first half of 2017, Harry Halpin worked with colleagues at IMDEA and University College London in completing the first systematization of knowledge of decentralization, submitted to PETS 2017, and presented preliminary results in “The Responsibility of Open Standards” paper at the HotPETS 2016 workshop as well as in the First Monday journal.

One of the most important protocols in the entire Web is the OAuth protocol, yet it has suffered from a number of dangerous security and privacy issues. Previously formally analysed by Prosecco, one of the larger problems facing this widely deployed protocol is the lack of privacy. Whenever a user log-ins into a website via Google or Facebook Connect (their identity provider), and then authorizes the flow of data between that website and the identity provider. However, the identity provider then gains knowledge of the every single visit that their users make to other websites that request their data, in addition to the data that the identity provider stores itself. Using a new blind signature scheme based on Algebraic MACs, the new UnlimitID protocol makes the use of federated identity by a user at a website unlinkable to their identity provider, while still allowing websites to gain the advantage of single authenticated sign-on to a large identity to prevent spamming and abuse. This work was presented at the Workshop for Privacy in the Electronic Society at ACM CCS. Unlike previous work that requires substantial changes to both websites using OAuth and identity providers, by using the new W3C Web Crypto API (as analyzed by Halpin), this new protocol requires only changes to the identity provider and is do backwards-compatible with existing OAuth implementations. Microsoft has supported this work for possible future standardization in the OpenID Foundation.

In order to be decentralized, secure messaging requires an ability to discover key material and guarantee its integrity. Typically, today this is done via a single centralized and unstandardised service provider. In order to create an interoperable standard around secure messaging, key discovery needs to be decentralized. Blockchain-based approaches have been suggested in previous work in the security research community such as CONIKS, but have failed to take off due to the high deployment cost on centralized servers. We’ve designed a new protocol, ClaimChain, that builds on both existing work on blockchains while adding new optimizations and providing a decentralized logic based on Rivest and Lampson’s SDSI to identify and discovery key material without a trusted third party. Joint work with CNRS to understand the social and economic considerations led to a publication in Internet Science and the existing design will be submitted to a top-notch security conference. Currently, we are discussing early use of this design with codebases used by secure messaging and email providers, and a security and privacy analysis of these codbases was published in CANS. Over the next year we plan for all of these protocols to have formally verified code for their cryptographic functionality and to present a design on how to integrate this work on key discovery into secure messaging with improved privacy and transcript consistency.